The term information ethics was first coined by Robert Hauptman and used in the book Ethical challenges in librarianship. The field of information ethics has a relatively short but progressive history having been recognized in the United States for nearly 20 years. Evidence of scholarly work on this subject can be traced to the s, when an article authored by Barbara J.
Kostrewski and Charles Oppenheim and published in the Journal of Information Science , discussed issues relating to the field including confidentiality, information biases, and quality control. Dilemmas regarding the life of information are becoming increasingly important in a society that is defined as "the information society".
The explosion of so much technology has brought information ethics to a forefront in ethical considerations. Information transmission and literacy are essential concerns in establishing an ethical foundation that promotes fair, equitable, and responsible practices. Information ethics broadly examines issues related to ownership, access, privacy, security, and community.
It is also concerned with relational issues such as "the relationship between information and the good of society, the relationship between information providers and the consumers of information". Information technology affects common issues such as copyright protection, intellectual freedom, accountability, privacy, and security.
Many of these issues are difficult or impossible to resolve due to fundamental tensions between Western moral philosophies based on rules, democracy, individual rights, and personal freedoms and the traditional Eastern cultures based on relationships, hierarchy, collective responsibilities, and social harmony. Professional codes offer a basis for making ethical decisions and applying ethical solutions to situations involving information provision and use which reflect an organization's commitment to responsible information service.
Evolving information formats and needs require continual reconsideration of ethical principles and how these codes are applied. Considerations regarding information ethics influence "personal decisions, professional practice, and public policy ". Censorship is an issue commonly involved in the discussion of information ethics because it describes the inability to access or express opinions or information based on the belief it is bad for others to view this opinion or information.
Those who believe censorship is ethical say the practice prevents readers from being exposed to offensive and objectionable material.
However, others in the field of information ethics argue the practice of censorship is unethical because it fails to provide all available information to the community of readers. British philosopher John Stuart Mill argued censorship is unethical because it goes directly against the moral concept of utilitarianism. Librarians and others who disperse information to the public also face the dilemma of the ethics of censorship through the argument that censorship harms students and is morally wrong because they are unable to know the full extent of knowledge available to the world.
Illegal downloading has also caused some ethical concerns  and raised the question whether digital piracy is equivalent to stealing or not. On the other hand, he thinks consumers should try to respect intellectual property unless doing so imposes unreasonable cost on them. In an article titled "Download This Essay: A Defence of Stealing Ebooks", Andrew Forcehimes argues that the way we think about copyrights is inconsistent, because every argument for physical public libraries is also an argument for illegally downloading ebooks and every argument against downloading ebooks would also be an argument against libraries.
Ethical concerns regarding international security, surveillance, and the right to privacy are on the rise. The more recent trend of medical records is to digitize them.
The sensitive information secured within medical records makes security measure vitally important. Warfare has also changed the security of countries within the 21st Century. After the events of and other terrorism attacks on civilians, surveillance by states raises ethical concerns of the individual privacy of citizens. Many other countries, especially European nations within the current climate of terrorism, is looking for a balancing between stricter security and surveillance, and not committing the same ethical concerns associated with the USA Patriot Act.
The main, peer-reviewed, academic journals reporting on information ethics are the Journal of the Association for Information Systems , the flagship publication of the Association for Information Systems , and Ethics and Information Technology , published by Springer.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kent State University. Retrieved 28 February Ethics and Information Technology. Archived from the original PDF on 9 November University of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 31 March Library and Information Center Management. Martinsons and D. Elrod and M. On July 3rd, , a think tank was held at Anglo American PLC headquarters near Trafalgar Square in London, bringing together business, academic and religious leaders to discuss how their energies can best be combined to promote integral human development.
Information ethics - Wikipedia
We were delighted to receive a video message of encouragement from Cardinal Turkson, Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development. Current Projects The interaction between profit-maximizing firms and firms with social missions competing in the same market Microfinance Catholic social teaching and business Responsible Research and Innovation RRI and Open Science OS Price controls and market economies. Public talks and workshops Think tank at Anglo American PLC on the role of business leaders in promoting integral human development On July 3rd, , a think tank was held at Anglo American PLC headquarters near Trafalgar Square in London, bringing together business, academic and religious leaders to discuss how their energies can best be combined to promote integral human development.
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