A Chinese online education program showcases the treasures of five top museums in Paris, enriching children with art. Though half an hour is far from enough for even a brief tour of any Parisian museum, it might just be enough for a study of 10 artworks, thanks to an online art education program that offers a teaser to the all-encompassing museum visiting experience. Five of the most famous Parisian museums recently cooperated with the Chinese program A Life Changing Museum Trip in Paris, aiming to engage more children in the appreciation of high art and entice Chinese families into an educational and entertaining journey to Paris.
The program is the first of its kind to have been officially authorized by five world-renowned French museums, including the Louvre, the Orsay Museum, the Centre Pompidou, the French National Museum of Natural History and the Army Museum. Since it was launched in August , 10 episodes have been released. Within each minute episode, the presenters introduce around 10 representative artworks from one museum, allowing the audience to get a glimpse of the institutions' vast collections.
The program is presented by Huang Jingjie, a key opinion leader in parenting education, with the script written by Zou Fanfan, a Chinese writer who lives in France and has produced a lot of children's literature. Global Edition.
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This paradoxical fact results from the lack of further sources for research: thus Mollenauer has done just about all that can be done on poisoning and black magic in late seventeenth-century Paris. Undergraduate students should digest it without resistance, and teachers can find much in it to provoke discussion, including but not limited to the obvious evidentiary problem.
The reign of Louis XIV reached its zenith in The Sun King was the richest ruler in Europe, his glittering court the envy of his fellow monarchs, and his magnificent palace at Versailles was approaching completion. Almost every endeavor Louis had embarked upon during his thirty-six years on the throne of France had proved a triumph.
By virtue of his patronage, France had become the center of high culture in Europe. He had established order within his realm, subduing major rebellions in Bordeaux and Burgundy, bending the regional parlements to his will, and promulgating sweeping legal and administrative ordinances.
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Louis had been victorious abroad as well, gaining substantial territories and diplomatic concessions in the War of Devolution and the Dutch War. He had only to desire something to have it; all, until this time, favored him; if it was raining when he wanted to hunt or to go for a walk, it stopped.
Moreover, he had money, glory, and above all great health; in sum, he lacked nothing but immortality. At the apex of his success, however, Louis XIV found the glory of his accomplishments undermined by a scandal of unprecedented proportions. The first macabre details of the Affair of the Poisons came to light in the fall of , when Nicolas de la Reynie, the first lieutenant general of the Paris police, uncovered evidence that suggested the existence of a plot to poison the king.
During his three-year investigation, La Reynie encountered a loosely knit community of magicians, sorceresses, and renegade priests who formed the nucleus of the criminal magical underworld of Paris. She sprinkled a variety of love potions into his food and bolstered their efficacy with an assortment of aphrodisiacs.
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The suspects in the affair even maintained that she had participated in a series of demonic conjurations known as amatory masses. Louis XIV marked the close of the commission with a royal edict that restricted the sale of poisons and decriminalized witchcraft in France. Many scholars, leery perhaps of the sensationalist accounts that dominate the literature on the affair, have avoided the subject entirely. Historians of witchcraft have tended to regard the affair as significant primarily because it prompted the French crown to simultaneously decriminalize and deny the reality of witchcraft in the edict of Moreover, the affair offers a singular opportunity to analyze the hidden forms of power which men and women of all social classes attempted to access in order to achieve their goals.
The public that so avidly followed the latest details of the Affair of the Poisons was an extensive one.
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While Louis and his ministers would have undoubtedly preferred that the entire affair remain secret, the sheer number of people arrested and the status of the most prominent suspects ensured that a wide audience took an ardent interest in the unfolding scandal. No official channels imparted news; the Mercure galant, a court circular, remained scrupulously silent on the subject and no factums, or trial briefs, of the secret trials were published. The majority of Parisians therefore relied upon hearsay and innuendo for the latest information.
Those without links to the court, however, were forced to rely upon the rumors circulating in the city, a form of communication more difficult to substantiate. Those who did not attend the play could follow its plot by leafing through the engravings in the Almanach de la devineresse, circulated by the playwrights to advertise their new work.
Parisians heard the prisoners admit their guilt in amendes honorables, or public apologies made before the main portal of Notre-Dame, and in final confessions offered at the foot of the scaffold. At the execution of the notorious La Voisin, nearly the entire population of Paris formed the audience before which the French state performed its ritual of justice.
The judicial records of the Affair of the Poisons unveil the shared culture of magic and poison that permeated all levels of French society, connecting the lower classes to the very center of power, the court. However, the reliability of the testimony of the suspects, who confessed to a litany of crimes both magical and material in their efforts to please their interrogators, remains highly uncertain.
When questioned, artisans and aristocrats alike admitted that they had visited sorceresses to purchase innocuous items such as spells of love magic or charms to bring luck at cards or dice. The police also seized grimoires and other magic manuals owned by the sorceresses and renegade priests that contained recipes for various potions and instructions for conducting ceremonies of ritual magic. Although the confessions of the suspects were given under various forms of duress, such indubitable physical evidence convinced the judges that at least some of the suspects in the Affair of the Poisons were indeed practicing sorcery and peddling poisons, and at least some of the accused had been their clients.
But what of the testimony regarding the practice of demonic magic?
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The suspects clearly recognized that, like Scheherazade, their lives depended upon spinning out their tales, and their statements certainly became increasingly fantastic over the course of their imprisonment. They did not purport to fly through the air on broomsticks, attend sabbats, copulate with devils, or worship Satan.
Rather, they claimed to have practiced a traditional form of Christian magic that exploited the rituals and imagery of the Catholic Church.