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Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username. Lisa A. Robert Y. Douglas D. Stephen K. Daniel W. Wink Address correspondence to: Dr. Contribution of regulatory T cells to cancer: A review. Tumor microenvironment: Interactions and therapy. Diseases Related to Types of Free Radicals. Heinecke , Robert Y.


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Cheng , Sharon A. Glynn , Stefan Ambs , David A. Wink , and Lisa A. Ridnour Vol. Thomas and David A. Wink Vol.

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Cabantchik , Patricia A. Onuchic , and Rachel Nechushtai Vol. Cheng , Lisa A. Sbodio , Solomon H. Snyder , and Bindu D. Paul Vol. Volume 30 Issue 8 Mar Ridnour, Robert Y. Cheng, Mayumi Fujita, Douglas D. Thomas, Stephen K. A number of cancer drugs were being sold by US patent holders at wholesale prices that were to high for most Indians. The government of India refused to allow these companies to patent their medicines in India and forced them to license the drugs and much cheaper prices. Most US patents are not operative in India, they can produce US style insulin pumps at a fraction of our cost as they can in China and Vietnam or Mexico.

It would be difficult to send these pumps to buyers in the US from India but by shipping them from another country, say Canada or Mexico most would make it past customs. As for Cancer treatment, India and china have some very fine trained biochemist and doctors, who could easily apply many of the immunological treatments against cancer.

All arms of the immune system have been used to produce miracle treatments that have cured some patients that were on their death beds. The treatments can be tested carefully in these countries, and improved by any methods including some I have suggested. By advertising in the US to cancer patients that they can inexpensively have these working treatments cheaply as a medical tourist, it is only a matter of time before they will cure the disease wholesale and break the medical industrial complex down.

As far as generics that are not being produced here, by setting up a non profit corporation that produces any and all drugs that come off patent as a goal, at the cheapest price less a reasonable markup for cost of manufacture etc. Successively overcoming a series of biological barriers that cancer nanotherapeutics would encounter upon intravenous administration is required for achieving positive treatment outcomes.

A hurdle to this goal is the inherently unfavorable tumor penetration of nanoparticles due to their relatively large sizes. We developed a stimuli-responsive clustered nanoparticle iCluster and justified that its adaptive alterations of physicochemical properties e. Results in varying intractable tumor models demonstrated significantly improved antitumor efficacy of iCluster than its control groups, demonstrating that overcoming these delivery barriers can be achieved by innovative nanoparticle design.

Virtually all healthy cells maintain a more negative voltage in the cell interior compared with the cell exterior. But the opening and closing of ion channels in the cell membrane can cause the voltage to become more positive depolarizing the cell or more negative polarizing the cell. That makes it possible to detect tumors by their abnormal bioelectrical signature before they are otherwise apparent. The use of light to control ion channels has been a ground-breaking tool in research on the nervous system and brain, but optogenetics had not yet been applied to cancer.

The researchers then used blue light to activate positively charged ion channels,which induced an electric current that caused the cells to go from a cancer-like depolarized state to a normal, more negative polarized state. The did the same with a green light-activated proton pump, Archaerhodopsin Arch. Activation of both agents significantly lowered the incidence of tumor formation and also increased the frequency with which tumors regressed into normal tissue.

1. Introduction

These include rapid cell division, tissue disorganization, increased vascular growth, invasiveness and cells that have an abnormally positive internal electric voltage. It has long been known that the resting potential of tumor cells is depolarized relative to their normal counterparts. More recent work has provided evidence that resting potential is not just a readout of cell state: it regulates cell behavior as well. Here we describe the first use of optogenetics to manipulate ion-flux mediated regulation of membrane potential specifically to prevent and cause regression of oncogene-induced tumors.

Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Signaling in Higher Plants | Dharmendra K. Gupta | Springer

These data demonstrate an optogenetic approach to dissect the biophysics of cancer. Moreover, they provide proof-of-principle for a novel class of interventions, directed at regulating cell state by targeting physiological regulators that can over-ride the presence of mutations. The researchers believe the sensing technology will also be useful in diagnosing and monitoring other diseases. The nanosensor, which fits in the palm of a hand, acts like a biological sieve, capable of isolating a small protein molecule weighing less than quadrillionths of a nanogram from an extremely dilute solution.

Light directed onto and through the layers is concentrated into a very small volume much smaller than the wavelength of light. The researchers hope to learn to identify specific biomarker and other molecules for different cancers by their light shifts. To add specificity to the sensor, the team added a layer of trap molecules — molecules that bind specifically with the molecules they hunt. In tests, the researchers used two trap molecules to catch two different biomolecules: bovine serum albumin, with a molecular weight of 66, Daltons, and biotin, with a molecular weight of Daltons.

Each produced a signature light shift. Other researchers have reported using plasmon-based biosensors to detect biotin in solutions at concentrations ranging from more than micromoles per liter to 10 micromoles per liter. This device proved 1 million times more sensitive, finding and identifying biotin at a concentration of 10 picomoles per liter. The incoming light, which is several hundreds of nanometers in wavelength, appears to be confined and concentrated in a few nanometers at the interface between the gold and the dielectric layer.

As the light strikes the sensing area, it excites free electrons causing them to oscillate and generate a highly confined propagating surface wave, called a surface plasmon polariton. This propagating surface wave will in turn excite a bulk wave propagating across the sensing platform. The presence of the waves cause deep sharp dips in the spectrum of reflecting light.


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The combination and the interplay of surface plasmon and bulk plasmon waves are what make the sensor so sensitive. Strangi said. By exciting these waves through the eight bilayers of the metamaterial, they create remarkably sharp resonant modes. Extremely sharp and sensitive resonances can be used to detect smaller objects. Optical sensor technology offers significant opportunities in the field of medical research and clinical diagnostics, particularly for the detection of small numbers of molecules in highly diluted solutions.

Several methods have been developed for this purpose, including label-free plasmonic biosensors based on metamaterials. In this context, we have developed a miniaturized plasmonic biosensor platform based on a hyperbolic metamaterial that can support highly confined bulk plasmon guided modes over a broad wavelength range from visible to near infrared. It can also put pressure on the optic nerve. Sourced through Scoop.

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Marcela Maus , Director of Cellular Immunotherapy, MGH Cancer Center more that one single administration by injection response rates different even in one patient let alone among patients detection gene CAR-T glioblastoma pancreatic cancer good responses in combination therapies immunr repertoire biology so complex that biomarkers are limited Dr. Bruce Chabner , Director of Clinical Research, Mass General Hospital Cancer Center Old paradigm Phase 1,2,3 — off the board now, New drugs do not need the old paradigm Phase i1 changed if genomics is involved multiple cohorts at same time FDA play amazing role patient selection is key mutations in rare disease vs mutations in cancer immunotherapy and endogenic drugs with chemo in RENAL cancer check-points — lung cancer understood money spent to find responders HOW to select which cheno therapy — no improvement today vs past 40 drugs approved by accelerated approval one came back on the market Financial burden of being in a clinical trial Foundation gives money to Institutions to reimburse patients for flights, meals, acommodation, Pharma are reluctant to participants due to potential accusation of bias id Pharma pays Patients that participate in Clinical Trials Dr.

Mace Rothenberg , Chief Medical Officer, Pfizer FDA recognizes approval process — systems involved AFTER approval for reimbursement and monitoring after market regulatory by countires are different which factors are sacrifiable in the long tern in clinical trial design Dr. William Chin , Professor of Medicine, Emeritus, Harvard Medical School Probability of success to clinic has not changed challenge is design and execution in clinical trials changes in drug modalities: RNA, DNA, which combination to use how to find the many patients needed Basket and Umbrellas Trial PM — PM Panel Discussion: Manufacturing in the Future Panelists: Hari Bhartia , Founder and Co-Chairman, Jubilant Bhartia Group supply change blockchain quality by design CPK productivity will go up variability will decrease manufacturng must happen in India Genetics price selection Secure system, data quality the data logic and the analytics infrastructure in manufacturing is not completed yet Training by augmented reality Turnover high in India cyber security — digitization and central control demonstration data offense Mark Abdoo , Acting Deputy Commissioner, U.

Food and Drug Administration next 10 years India and China will improve regulatory activities and match better the US requirements review foreign hosts skills and location of hosts: India: Standards and unannounced inspections and China: same Blockchain is experienced as experimentation at FDA across each all parts of the Agency Dr. James Wilson , Director — Gene Therapy Program, University of Pennsylvania tension between physicians and development of the perfect drug. John Maraganore , Chief Executive Officer, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals right for innovation will be preserved price increase give and take Co-pay — We need lower co-pay with current administration, sink finding the Well instead of Well funding the sick CHange is coming, co-pay will change Dr.

Stelios Papadopoulos , Chairman, Biogen Genzyme days vs changes how drugs are priced? Carbidopa is over 10, times more potent in inhibiting the human decarboxylase, the higher abundance of bacterial enzyme in the small intestines of rats reduced levels of levodopa in the bloodstream, positive correlation between disease duration and levels of bacterial tyrosine decarboxylase.

El Aidy concludes that the presence of the bacterial tyrosine decarboxylase enzyme can explain why some patients need more frequent dosages of levodopa to treat their motor fluctuations. Pharmacogenetics Larry H. Genotype Variants Although a detailed description of specific genotype variants is beyond the scope of this article, a brief survey of the diversity of genotypes is helpful to provide a sense of the complexity that is inherent in genotyping, which has, in some ways, slowed the adoption of pharmacogenetics. Physicians, who need to make therapeutic decisions quickly and cannot wait for genotype results, are increasingly looking at preemptive genotyping as a potential solution to improve treatment options.

Future Perspectives Future Perspectives The pace at which pharmacogenetics is incorporated into healthcare will increase due to factors such as the decreasing cost of genotyping, the installation of a medical informatics infrastructure, and increased consumer demand for personal genotyping information. Avoiding chemotherapy toxicities Larry H.

The nanoparticles start out relatively large nm large blue circle, upper left to enable smooth transport into the tumor through leaky blood vessels. Once inside tumor cells, a second chemical step activates the platinum-based drug cisplatin bottom to attack the cancer directly. Once inside tumor cells, the bomblets release the platinum-based cisplatin, which kills by crosslinking and damaging DNA. The facts suggest that big pharma represents only a few companies in most fields of disease.

They spend an enormous amount of money in lobbying congress and doctors to get them to do their bidding. The profit motive is central with patient well being only being practiced if it pays off. Cancer is a superb example, with new drugs being offered usually at astronomical prices in this country. Like wise the FDA is controlled by them and it is in their best interests to make the cost of developing new drugs outrageously expensive. Only big pharma can afford to get new drugs approved. After the phase 3 trials are completed usually the documentation to ask for approval to market a drug is at least , pages long.

The legal talent needed to compile such documents and this is only one of many documents produced in the process is extremely expensive. The time taken for approval stretches into many years and then the drugs are often not approved. Antibiotics were one example of a group of drugs that really did cure many diseases. Over time, as Alexander Fleming forsaw, the bacteria would develop resistance, especially if they were extensively used indiscriminantly.

Now many dangerous bacteria are resistant to many or all antibiotics and there is no treatment available.

Introduction

Since bacteria can pass this resistance to specific antibiotics to almost any species of bacteria, its only a matter of time before we will be back in the pre-antibiotic era. Engineering of self-assembled nanoparticle platform for precisely controlled combination drug therapy. Nagesh Kolishetti et al. Lin Zhu et al. Maxim P Nikitin et al. Rong Tong et al.

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Li Tang et al. Houston Methodist, ScienceDaily , Researchers use optogenetic light to block tumor development. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation. Chernet, Dany S. Adams, Maria Lobikin, Michael Levin. Use of genetically encoded, light-gated ion translocators to control tumorigenesis. Oncotarget, March 16, ; DOI: Based on nanostructured metamaterials, it can identify a single lightweight molecule in a highly dilute solution. The research goal is to provide oncologists a way to detect a single molecule of an enzyme produced by circulating cancer cells. That could allow doctors to diagnose and monitor patients with certain cancers far earlier than possible today.

A biological sieve The nanosensor, which fits in the palm of a hand, acts like a biological sieve, capable of isolating a small protein molecule weighing less than quadrillionths of a nanogram from an extremely dilute solution. Extreme sensitivity biosensing platform based on hyperbolic metamaterials. Nature Materials ; doi Nature Materials ; Supplementary Information open access. Blog at WordPress.