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As a result of the oil crisis , the American economy entered recession. Revenues of Hustler Clubs declined, Flynt had to refinance his debts or declare bankruptcy , he decided to turn the Hustler Newsletter into a sexually explicit magazine with national distribution. He paid the start-up costs of the new magazine by deferring payment of sales taxes his clubs owed on their activities. In July , the first issue of Hustler was published. Although the first few issues were unnoticed, within a year the magazine became lucrative and Flynt was able to pay his tax debts.

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Flynt's friend Al Goldstein said that Hustler took its inspiration from his own tabloid SCREW , but credited him with accomplishing what he had not: creating a national publication. In November , Hustler showed photos of open vulvas. Flynt had to fight to publish each issue, as many people, including some at his distribution company, found the magazine too explicit and threatened to remove it from the market. Shortly thereafter, Flynt was approached by a paparazzo who had taken pictures of former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis while she was sunbathing nude on vacation in He published them in the August issue.

That issue attracted widespread attention, 1 million copies were sold within a few days. The shooting left Flynt paralyzed with permanent spinal cord damage, in need of a wheelchair. Flynt's injuries caused him constant, excruciating pain and he was addicted to painkillers until multiple surgeries deadened the affected nerves, he suffered a stroke caused by one of several overdoses on his analgesic medication. He has had pronunciation difficulties since.

Joseph Paul Franklin , a white supremacist and s.


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EC Comics Entertaining Comics, more known as EC Comics , was an American publisher of comic books, which specialized in horror fiction, crime fiction, military fiction, dark fantasy , science fiction from the s through the mids, notably the Tales from the Crypt series. EC was owned by Maxwell Gaines and specialized in educational and child-oriented stories.

After Max Gaines' death in a boating accident in , his son William Gaines took over the company and began to print more mature stories, delving into genres of horror, fantasy , science-fiction and others. Noted for their high quality and shock endings, these stories were unique in their conscious, progressive themes that anticipated the Civil Rights Movement and dawn of s counterculture. In —55, censorship pressures prompted it to concentrate on the humor magazine Mad, leading to the company's greatest and most enduring success.

By , the company ceased publishing all of its comic lines besides Mad; the firm, first known as Educational Comics, was founded by Max Gaines, former editor of the comic-book company All-American Publications. When that company merged with DC Comics in , Gaines retained rights to the comic book Picture Stories from the Bible , began his new company with a plan to market comics about science and the Bible to schools and churches.

A decade earlier, Max Gaines had been one of the pioneers of the comic book form, with Eastern Color Printing's proto-comic book Funnies on Parade , with Dell Publishing's Famous Funnies : A Carnival of Comics, considered by historians the first true American comic book ; when Max Gaines died in in a boating accident, his son William inherited the comics company. After four years in the Army Air Corps , Gaines had returned home to finish school at New York University , planning to work as a chemistry teacher, he never instead took over the family business.

With input from Gaines, the stories were written by Kurtzman and Craig. EC had success with its fresh approach and pioneered in forming relationships with its readers through its letters to the editor and its fan organization, the National EC Fan-Addict Club. EC Comics promoted its stable of illustrators, allowing each to sign his art and encouraging them to develop idiosyncratic styles; this was in contrast to the industry's common practice, in which credits were missing, although some artists at other companies, such as the Jack Kirby — Joe Simon team, Jack Cole and Bob Kane had been prominently promoted.

EC published distinct lines of titles under its Entertaining Comics umbrella. Most notorious were its horror books, Tales from the Crypt, The Vault of Horror and The Haunt of Fear ; these titles reveled in a gruesome joie de vivre, with grimly ironic fates meted out to many of the stories' protagonists. The company's war comics Frontline Combat and Two-Fisted Tales featured weary-eyed, unheroic stories out of step with the jingoistic times. Shock SuspenStories tackled weighty political and social issues such as racism , drug use, the American way of life. EC always claimed to be "proudest of our science fiction titles", with Weird Science and Weird Fantasy publishing stories unlike the space opera found in such titles as Fiction House's Planet Comics.

Crime SuspenStories had many parallels with film noir ; as noted by Max Allan Collins in his story annotations for Russ Cochran's hardcover reprint of Crime SuspenStories, Johnny Craig had developed a "film noir-ish bag of effects" in his visuals, while characters and themes found in the crime stories showed the strong influence of writers associated with film noir, notably James M.

Craig excelled in drawing stories of domestic scheming and conflict, leading David Hajdu to observe: To young people of the postwar years, when the mainstream culture glorified suburban domesticity as the modern American ideal-- the life that made the Cold War worth fighting-- nothing else in the panels of EC comics , not the giant alien cockroach that ate earthlings , not the baseball game played with human body parts, was so subversive as the idea that the exits of the Long Island Expressway emptied onto levels of Hell.

Superior illustrations of stories with surprise endings became EC's trademark. Gaines would stay up late and read large amounts of material while seeking "springboards" for story concepts; the next day he would present each premise until Feldstein found one that he thought he could develop into a story. At EC's peak, Feldstein edited seven titles. Artists were assigned stories specific to their styles.

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Davis and Ingels drew gruesome, supernatural-themed stories, while Kamen and Evans did tamer material. With hundreds of stories written, common themes surfaced; some of EC's more well-known themes include: An ordinary situation given an ironic and gruesome twist as poetic justice for a character's crimes. In "Collection Completed" a man takes up taxidermy ; when he kills and stuffs her beloved cat.

Creepy magazine Creepy was an American horror-comics magazine launched by Warren Publishing in Like Mad, it was a black-and-white newsstand publication in a magazine format and thus did not require the approval or seal of the Comics Code Authority. An anthology magazine, it was published quarterly but went bimonthly; each issue's stories were introduced by Uncle Creepy.

Its sister publications were Vampirella. Illustrator and editor Russ Jones , the founding editor of Creepy in , said he approached Famous Monsters of Filmland magazine publisher Jim Warren with the idea of horror comics similar to the s' EC Comics comic books, but as black-and-white magazines that would not be subject to the comics industry's self-censorship Comics Code Authority. Warren agreed. Jones recalled.

Jim cut it back to I sent it off to Jack Davis to work up a cover. Still no title. Titles are tough. Ask anyone who had to come up with one. One night I was sitting in the studio alone, looking at Woody's tear-sheets from the ECs, when Warren called. He was furious and demanded a name for Project D. I was looking at a balloon over an Ingels Old Witch , in her narrative, the word "creepy" grabbed out at me.

I muttered the name to Jim We now had a title for our mag.

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Joe Orlando was not only an illustrator for Creepy but a story editor on early issues, with his masthead credit reading: "Story Ideas: Joe Orlando. In , Russ Jones departed. Archie Goodwin , having been writing most of the stories and working with most of the regular artists, succeeded him as editor. Goodwin, who became one of comics' foremost writers, helped establish the company as a prominent force in the field of black-and-white comics magazines. Published quarterly, Creepy switched to bi-monthly by the end of To help draw the best possible performance out of the artists working on the series, prior to writing a story Goodwin would ask the artist what type of story or setting he would like to work in.

He wrote a considerable number of adaptations of public domain works for Creepy. Out of a feeling that the original works were overly familiar, he would change either the ending or the beginning of the story when doing these adaptations, he concluded that this was presumptuous, began adhering more to the original stories. Goodwin resigned as the editor of Creepy after issue Due to a lack of funds, the majority of the magazine's leading artists left, Warren was forced to rely on reprints, which would be prevalent in the magazine until issue 32 in April A variety of editors ran the magazine during this period, including Bill Parente , Nicola Cuti and Warren himself.

Things would pick up starting in with the premiere of Vampirella magazine; some of Creepy's original artists, including Frazetta and Wood, would return, as did Goodwin, associate editor for issues 35 through A variety of editors continued to manage Creepy after Goodwin's second departure, including Billy Graham and J. William Dubay , who had started at Warren as an artist with issue 32 in , would become editor of the magazine for issues 50 through 78, except for a short period of time in , when Goodwin returned for issues 61 through During this period the frequency of Creepy and Warren's other magazines was upped to nine issues per year.

Another major development occurred in late when artists from the Barcelona Studio of Spanish agency Selecciones Illustrada started appearing in Creepy and other Warren magazines. Additional artists from S. Themed specials dominated Dubay's era as editor, included two Edgar Allan Poe issues, three Christmas issues, three issues dedicated to a single artist, a science fiction issue and an issue where every story was based on the cover painting. This era featured stories that were printed in color, many of which were done by Richard Corben.

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Towards the end of his period as editor, many artists from Creepy's first golden era returned, including Alex Toth and John Severin. Dubay was replaced by Louise Jones , his former assistant. Jones would edit the magazine until issue in March Former DC Comics publisher Carmine Infantino joined Warren shortly after he became editor and did pencils for over 50 stories.

While he had resigned as editor, Dubay remained with Warren and became their dominant writer during this period. Unidentified flying object An unidentified flying object is an object observed in the sky, not identified. Most UFOs are identified as conventional objects or phenomena; the term is used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial spacecraft. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object.

During the late s and through the s, UFOs were referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs"; the term UFO became more widespread during the s, at first in technical literature, but in popular use. UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War , an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, more in the s, for unexplained reasons.

Various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit; the Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO. The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Ruppelt , who headed Project Blue Book the USAF's official investigation of UFOs, he wrote, "Obviously the term'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects.

UFO for short. The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold estimated the speed of discs to be over 1, mph. At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs". Ufo's were referred to colloquially, as a "Bogey" by military personal and pilots during the cold war; the term "bogey" was used to report anomalies in radar blips, to indicate possible hostile forces that might be roaming in the area.

In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft, because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena. Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most aircraft, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage being hoaxes.

While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Instead of accepting the null hypothesis, UFO enthusiasts tend to engage in special pleading by offering outlandish, untested explanations for the validity of the ETH; these violate Occam's razor. No scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals.

There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact. UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation; the void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena in the midth century and, more the Mutual UFO Network and the Center for UFO Studies.

The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture, the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history; some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily.

Mad magazine Mad is an American humor magazine founded in by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines , launched as a comic book before it became a magazine. It was imitated and influential, affecting satirical media, as well as the cultural landscape of the 20th century, with editor Al Feldstein increasing readership to more than two million during its circulation peak.

From until , Mad published regular issues, as well as hundreds of reprint "Specials", original-material paperbacks, reprint compilation books and other print projects; the magazine's numbering reverted to 1 with its June issue, coinciding with the magazine's headquarters move to the West Coast.

The magazine is the last surviving title from the EC Comics line, offering satire on all aspects of life and popular culture, politics and public figures, its format is divided into a number of recurring segments such as TV and movie parodies, as well as freeform articles. Mad's mascot, Alfred E. Neuman , is the focal point of the magazine's cover, with his face replacing that of a celebrity or character, lampooned within the issue. Mad began as a comic book published by EC, debuting in August , located in lower Manhattan at Lafayette Street.

Wood and Davis were the three main illustrators throughout the issue run of the comic book. To retain Kurtzman as its editor, the comic book converted to magazine format as of issue 24; the switchover induced Kurtzman to remain for only one more year, but crucially, the move had removed Mad from the strictures of the Comics Code Authority. When Feldstein retired in , he was replaced by the senior team of Nick Meglin and John Ficarra , who co-edited Mad for the next two decades.

None of Mad's veteran New York staff made the move, resulting in a change in editorial leadership and art direction. Bill Morrison succeeded Ficarra in January However, Morrison's tenure was the shortest of any top editor in Mad's history as he left the magazine in February To date, Mad has not named a successor. Gaines was named a Kinney board member, was permitted to run Mad as he saw fit without corporate interference. Following Gaines' death, Mad became more ingrained within the Time Warner corporate structure; the magazine was obliged to abandon its long-time home at Madison Avenue, in the mids it moved into DC Comics' offices at the same time that DC relocated to Broadway.

In , the magazine began running paid advertising; the outside revenue allowed the introduction of improved paper stock. By the end of , Mad had settled on an unusual eight-times-a-year schedule, which lasted four decades. Issues would go on sale 7 to 9 weeks before the start of the month listed on the cover. Gaines felt. Mad began producing additional issues, until it reached a traditional monthly schedule with the January issue.

With its th issue, amid company-wide cutbacks at Time Warner, the magazine temporarily regressed to a quarterly publication before settling to six issues per year in Throughout the years, Mad remained a unique mix of political humor. Throughout the s, Mad featured groundbreaking parodies combining a sentimental fondness for the familiar staples of American culture—such as Archie and Superman—with a keen joy in exposing the fakery behind the image, its approach was described by Dave Kehr in The New York Times : " Bob Elliott and Ray Goulding on the radio, Ernie Kovacs on television, Stan Freberg on records, Harvey Kurtzman in the early issues of Mad: all of those pioneering humorists and many others realized that the real world mattered less to people than the sea of sounds and images that th.

Orthodox Judaism Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah , both Written and Oral, as revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted since. Orthodox Judaism therefore advocates a strict observance of Jewish Law , or Halakha, to be interpreted and determined only according to traditional methods and in adherence to the continuum of received precedent through the ages, it regards the entire halakhic system as grounded in immutable revelation beyond external and historical influence.

More than any theoretical issue, obeying the dietary, purity and other laws of Halakha is the hallmark of Orthodoxy. Other key doctrines include belief in a future resurrection of the dead , divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel , an eventual restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem under the Messiah. Orthodox Judaism is not a centralized denomination. Relations between its different subgroups are sometimes strained, the exact limits of Orthodoxy are subject to intense debate. It may be divided between Ultra-Orthodox or "Haredi", more conservative and reclusive, Modern Orthodox Judaism , open to outer society.

Each of those is itself formed of independent streams, they are uniformly exclusionist , regarding Orthodoxy as the only authentic form of Judaism and rejecting all competing non-Orthodox philosophies as illegitimate. While adhering to traditional beliefs, the movement is a modern phenomenon, it arose as a result of the breakdown of the autonomous Jewish community since the 18th century, was much shaped by a conscious struggle against the pressures of secularization and rival alternatives.

The observant and theologically aware Orthodox are a definite minority among all Jews, but there are numerous semi- and non-practicing persons who are affiliated or identifying with the movement. In total, Orthodox Judaism is the largest Jewish religious group, estimated to have over 2 million practicing adherents and at least an equal number of nominal members or self-identifying supporters. The earliest known mentioning of the term "Orthodox Jews" was made in the Berlinische Monatsschrift in The word "Orthodox" was borrowed from the general German Enlightenment discourse, used not to denote a specific religious group, but rather those Jews who opposed Enlightenment.

During the early and midth century, with the advent of the progressive movements among German Jews and early Reform Judaism , the title "Orthodox" became the epithet of the traditionalists who espoused conservative positions on the issues raised by modernization, they themselves disliked the alien, name, preferring titles like "Torah-true", declared they used it only for the sake of convenience. By the s, the term became common and accepted in Eastern Europe , remains as such.

Orthodoxy perceives itself ideologically as the only authentic continuation of Judaism throughout the ages, as it was until the crisis of modernity. Its progressive opponents shared this view, regarding it as a fossilized remnant of the past and lending credit to their own rivals' ideology. Thus, the term "Orthodox" is used generically to refer to traditional synagogues, prayer rites, so forth. However, academic research has taken a more nuanced approach, noting that the formation of Orthodox ideology and organizational frameworks was itself a product of modernity, it was brought about by the need to defend and buttress the concept of tradition, in a world where it was not self-evident anymore.

When deep secularization and the dismantlement of communal structures uprooted the old order of Jewish life, traditionalist elements united to form groups which had a distinct self-understanding. This, all that it entailed, constituted a great change, for the Orthodox had to adapt to the new circumstances no less than anyone else.

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Among the Jews of the Muslim lands, similar processes on a large scale only occurred around the s, after they immigrated to Israel. Orthodoxy is described as conservative, ossifying a once-dynamic tradition due to the fear of legitimizing change. While this was not true, its defining feature was not the forbidding of change and "freezing" Jewish heritage in its tracks, but rather the need to adapt to being but one segment of Judaism in a modern world inhospitable to traditional practice.

Orthodoxy developed as a variegated "spectrum of reactions" — as termed by Benjamin Brown — involving in many cases much accommodation and leniency. Scholars nowadays since the mids, research Orthodox Judaism as a field in i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Accessed Aug. Categories : Comic book company founders Comic book publishers people American magazine publishers people American pulp magazine publishers people births deaths. Comic book. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island.

It is the county seat of Broward County. As of the census, the city has an estimated population of , The New River in downtown Fort Lauderdale. The United States of America, commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. In , the comic book industry instituted the Comics Code, a set of self-regulatory guidelines imposed to placate public concern over gory and horrific comic book content, effectively banning genui In , the comic book industry instituted the Comics Code, a set of self-regulatory guidelines imposed to placate public concern over gory and horrific comic book content, effectively banning genuin Monster magazine in newspaper format.

This is a sample photo, the copy in the scan might n Chilling Bronze Age horror from DC. Atomic Bomb explosion panel. Werewolf story by Sid Check. Jack Katz art. Pre code horror. NOTE: This listing is for the poster only, and not the actual 's comic book. Middle third of front cover is missing and had been replaced with a cutting from a reprint copy.